Low-poly Character Modeling From Scratch! - How To Make 3D Model

Low-poly Character Modeling From Scratch! - How To Make 3D Model

When creating 3D models of characters for work, there are not many opportunities to create them completely from scratch.

Character models are often created from an elemental body (a basic model of an unclothed human figure) that is appropriated, so the model is usually created from some base.

But everyone wants to create their own character model from scratch at least once.

Explanation Setcchan Turntable

In this article, I will introduce how we modeled a character from scratch using this model of explanations, and we will also write about the "thinking" and "points" when modeling.

The 3D character model of explanations is basically created using only polygon extrusion, polygon cutting, & vertex movement. In addition, UV expansion/Textures will not be dealt with in this article.

Although this character model is simple in construction, I believe that the modeling ideas and points presented in the article can be applied to any character model.

- Character model specifications -
  • Make A-Pose at standing (no animation planned)
  • Ultra-simple model, a texture is a color only
  • Eyes, nose, and mouth are drawn on the texture to represent
  • 2950 polygons in the finished model

 

Interested in modeling characters, I encourage you to read this book.

If you simply want to see someone else's modeling, Please jump quickly to 4 points to keep in mind when modeling a character.

 

Video Series

■ 2021.4.14-7.20
I've started a series of videos of Toha modeling a character while watching the blog → Finished!

I've also speaken a supplement to the blog with details that I didn't write about, so please take a look at it as well :)

 

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Their own way of making 3D models, No right or wrong

First of all, I would like to tell you something. It is..

There is no right or wrong way to do modeling.

If there are 10 3DCG artists, there are 10 different ways of modeling. There is no such thing as which one is right and which one is wrong.

Just that each person has their own way of doing things, that's all.

 

There are a number of modeling columns on the website of Autodesk, a major player in the 3DCG industry, but

In this column, we will discuss how to create a plate polygon that traces the centerline of the character and adds thickness, and how to create a polygon that is thick enough to be used in a character.

In another column, the method is to make it by extrusion and cutting from a cubic object.

I think either way is fine.

Anything that is easy for the person to do and makes a good-looking 3D model is fine.

 

The only way to find a way that works for you is to try different ways of doing things yourself.

Especially when you are just starting to make 3D models, you may wonder "Am I doing things the right way? Am I actually doing something really inefficient? How are other people doing it?"

It is helpful to look at various modeling methods of others to help alleviate this concern.

There are many different ways of modeling in the world that suit different people.

I think it is a good idea to first learn about the various modeling methods and then try them out to see which one works best for you.

 

The content of this article has consistently been the Toha style of modeling.

We hope you will see this as one of the many ways to create a character model.

 

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Iron Rule of polygon modeling "Start with few vertices"

bicorn

I said that there is no right or wrong way to do modeling. But,

There is a "way of thinking" that says it is easier to create a beautiful 3D model in this way as possible.

A particularly important concept in polygon modeling is to "start with few vertices".

The reason why this is important is that polygon modeling is "the more vertices, the more annoying".

What is polygon modeling?
...How to create a 3D model by extruding and cutting a plate called a polygon.

 

As a bit of an example, look at the 3D model below.

Comparison of models with few and many vertices

When trying to make a shuriken-like shape from a square object, which is more troublesome, A or B?

I think B is more of a pain in the neck.

If there are a lot of vertices to move, you simply need to move your hands a lot, and the more vertices you have, the more likely the object's shape will be wobbly.

 

3DCG software such as Maya and Blender can move multiple vertices at once.

Lattice, FFD, bends, soft selection, proportional editing... there are many things.

With these convenience functions, you can move vertices reasonably cleanly even if the number of vertices is large. But still, the simplest and easiest way is to have a small number of vertices to move.

 

Most people who draw drawings or illustrations will first draw a bite line.

They roughly draw the size of the head and the lines of the body, and then gradually draw in the details. I think the majority of people take this approach because it is easier to draw and less prone to backtracking.

Example of drawing a rough before illustration

The process of creating a 3D model can be thought of in the same way as drawing or illustration.

First, take a rough shape with a few vertices, then gradually build up the details. In this way, you can keep the overall balance and reduce the number of backward revisions.

I am a pain in the neck, I start by taking a shape with fewer vertices at first anyway.

 

 

4 Points to keep in mind when modeling characters

GOGO

There are 4 key points that Toha will keep in mind when modeling a character.

  1. Proportion
  2. Volume
  3. Silhouette
  4. Detail

I think it will be a little easier to create character models if we hold them down from the top.

From now on, we will actually look at the 4 points while creating a model of a character from scratch.

 

(1) "Proportion" related to the first impression of the 3D model

The first thing to keep in mind is "Proportion".

Proportions are the character's head height, style, and posture. It applies to the size of the head, the position of the hips, and the length of the arms and legs.

It is very troublesome to correct any misalignments later, and it also affects the final appearance of the 3D model, so we want to make sure we get it right.

Let's try actual modeling.

Basically, all we do is extrude, cut, and move vertices of polygons, but we use the mirror (symmetry) feature as needed for symmetrical modeling.

We will not discuss how to use the functions of 3DCG software, as this is not the main point of this article.

 

Character modeling at Toha starts with a cube of almost anything.

*A video version is also available.

 

First is the face. Cut the cube and move the vertices.

How the face model is made (Part 1)

Next is the body. Cut the cube and push out the limbs. Cut the hips and knees.

How the body model is created (Part 1)

I did it.

(1) Check proportions

I am not placing a guide image in the viewport when modeling a character, but rather, I create the character by looking at the character picture displayed off-screen in the 3DCG software.

Explanation Setcchan Blueprint

*For reasons not to put guide images, Character Model Necessary Blueprint? - Not Recommend Modeling Relies on Blueprints.

 

Compare the low-poly model with the character drawing to check that the proportions are approximately correct.

If the proportions of the final model are off (for example, if the head is too big, the torso or hands are too long, or the legs are too short) the first impression when you see that character model is "Hmm?" .

I don't know what it is, but the whole thing feels strange, the balance feels a little odd.

When a quick look at a character's 3D model gives this impression, it may be a good idea to modify the proportions.

*The video version part.9: I'm fine-tuning the proportions & balancing the proportions.

 

Here, it is OK for now, and we will move on.

 

 

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(2) "Volume" is a major 3D element of the 3D model

As expected, the image is too crunchy, so we cut polygons to adjust the shape.

*Video version Part .2 for a demonstration and explanation of the process in this area.

 

First, the face. Since it is difficult to imagine the face without knowing the position of the nose, cut the polygons and move the vertices so that the nose can be created.

How the face model is made (Part 2)

Since the body has square prismatic arms and legs like a robot, cut polygons to make them cylindrical and move the vertices.

How the body model is created (Part 2)

I did it.

(2) See the volume of the model

The next concern here is "Volume".

The 3D model is 3D, so it has a three-dimensional volume.

For example, the thickness of the arms and legs may differ considerably when viewed from the front and the side. The shape of the head, for example, may look good from the front or an angle, but when viewed from above, it may look strangely square.

We want the volume to be three-dimensional compelling from any direction in 360 degrees.

This sense of volume is one of the reasons why 3D models are 3D, and can only be expressed through three-dimensional modeling.

Even character models with the same head height have different volumes depending on whether they have a full or slim body.

How to create the volume of the costume and hair is also an important element of the character model.

The 3D model of this character features a bit of volume in the feet.
Let's assume this is OK for now, and go on to the next.

 

(3) "Silhouette" of 3D models that only polygons can create

Once here, check the "Silhouette" of the 3D model.

In most 3DCG software, if you select flat in Lighting, you can see only the silhouette of the object without its three-dimensional effect.

(3) Check the silhouette of the model on a flat display

*For Blender, you can be displayed flat where 3D view shading.

 

In the silhouetted state, it is easier to see the overall balance of the model and the angularity of the edges than before. Now, the cracking of the head is quite noticeable.

In a 3D model made of polygons, only polygons can shape the silhouette.

It is possible to make the surface of a 3D model look uneven by drawing a three-dimensional effect into the color texture or by using a special texture called a normal map. However, since these textures are only pasted onto polygons, they cannot change the silhouette of the model itself.

If you want to create bumps and dips as silhouettes, the only way is to create them with polygons.

Smoothing the edges of silhouettes is also something that can only be done with polygons.

 

This model in the process of creation has a noticeably crunchy head. To eliminate this, it is necessary to increase the number of polygons and adjust the model so that it looks smooth.

*For more information, see Polygons are flat and You can't create a "curved surface" by collecting polygons.

 

The idea that "silhouettes can only be created with polygons" is a very important one, especially when creating 3D models for games with a limited polygon count, for example.

It is an indicator to determine how far to use polygons and how far to use textures.

The features of a character that are important from the silhouette point of view are created with polygons, and the parts that do not affect the silhouette so much are done with textures. In this way, the areas where you want to prioritize the use of polygons will naturally be decided.

 

So far.

  1. Proportion
  2. Volume
  3. Silhouette

We have seen that these three are checked many times while modeling the character.

Since it is time-consuming to make major changes to the proportions later, the proportions are roughly determined at the beginning, but adjustments are made even during the production process.

Volume and silhouette are looked at each time the face, hair, clothing, and ornaments are made.

In character polygon modeling, "start with a few vertices" is the basic approach, and then gradually create detailed models by rotating in a circle from (1) to (2) to (3), which seems to be the most comfortable approach for Toha.

 

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(4) "Detail" that raises the quality of 3D models to the next level

Once the 3D model is in good shape, we will work on the details of the 3D model. It will be a "Detail" part.

I always make the head (face and hair) and then proceed with the body modeling after I am somewhat satisfied with the results. Since the head will be discussed later, let's look at the details of the body first.

Cut the polygons of the body and move the vertices to create a nice silhouette.

How the body model is created (Part 3)

*Video Edition Part.3 to supplement the reduced polygons in the body!

*In addition Part 4 of the video version and I also did some foot modeling.

 

The arms and hands are also created by cutting polygons, extruding and moving vertices.

How the arm model is made

*For the part about the hands that are difficult to understand in the image, please see the video version Part.5.

 

The skirt is created by duplicating the body model and extruding polygons from the waist edge.
To make the hem line look smooth, increase the polygons only at the hem by cutting and adjusting.

How the skirt model is made (Part 1)

Buttons are created from cylinder objects and bracelets are created from torus objects.

How the button and bracelet model is made

Ribbons are created from cube objects by extruding, cutting, and moving vertices.

How the ribbon model is made

The backside of the skirt is created by duplicating the skirt object and then flipping the polygons inside out.

How the skirt model is made (Part 2)

I did it.

Body model almost ready

* Bracelet and ribbon modeling is Video version Part.10 explains it all!

 

This character model is simple, so I did not go into too much detail when it comes to creating details. The lines of the legs and feet are the parts that I pay particular attention to.

Other design features include three-dimensional buttons and ribbons to prevent the silhouette from becoming too simple, and bracelets on the arms to reduce the sense of symmetry.

 

The detailing of character models is the area in which each person's attention to detail comes out the most.

The quality of the 3D model will improve as the details are carefully crafted.

However, if you are obsessed with the entire body from the tips of your feet to the top of your head, you may be too obsessed with the endless possibilities and may not be able to complete your model.

It might be better to prioritize the areas that you are particular about or to set some time boundaries.

The detailing should be done only after you are satisfied with the proportions and volume of the model.

Even if the details are carefully crafted, if the proportions, volume, and other aspects of the 3D model that relate to the "quick impression" are not good enough, the overall impression may not be good enough.

If the "quick impression" of the character model looks good, and if the "details" look good when you take a closer look, then the character model will look great!

 

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Character is all about the face, Good face becomes fun to make!

lend an eye

The most important part of a character's 3D model is the face.

No matter how stunning the proportions, how attractive the volume and silhouette are, or how wonderful the detailing, if the face is not cute/cool, it will look disappointing.

Although there are genres such as "Busakawa". But basically, everyone's ideal of a character model created in 3DCG is cute/cool.

The face is still important.

That is why modeling the face and hair is particularly difficult, but I think it is an area where you can take your time and focus until you are satisfied with the result, in my opinion.

Once the character's face is nice and ready, it becomes more fun to make the model.

So, Toha always makes the face and hair model first.
Oh~ the face is so cute/cool~, and then the body model is made.

 

I really could write an article just on face and hair, but I will write it here as if I could have made it without hesitation.

 

The face is also detailed by looking at the volume and silhouette. It is difficult to create a face without looking at the position of the eyes and mouth, so a temporary texture is applied and adjusted. We are particular about the contours.

How the face model is created (Part 3)

*Video version Part.6: I did the face modeling at temporary textures are also applied.

 

Once you are satisfied with the face to some extent, create the hair. It is made by extrusion, cutting, and vertex movement from the cube.

For ease of modeling, hair objects can be separated in front of and behind the ears. (We will attach them later.) Adjust the silhouette of the hair with care so that it is soft and fluffy.

How the face model is created (Part 4)

*Video Version Part.7: Working on the base model of the hair.

 

Twin tails are made on one side and copied. Extrude from the cube. The vertices of the hair ends are joined.

Once the hair model is created, the face is adjusted again, looking at both the face and the hair. Ideally, the face model should look good without the hair, but it will be modified to look even better with the hair included.

How the face model is created (Part 5)

*Video Version Part 8: Made twin tails at her hair!

 

Finally, the polygons are smoothed and the modeling is now complete.

The smoothing process is finished and modeling is complete.

Smooth processing in Blender You can find out how to adjust it here~.

 

This article will not deal with UVs and textures, but here is what it will look like when the textures are complete as well.

Here's what it looks like when you put the texture on

It's done!

 

*Smooth Processing and UV Development Video Version Part.11 and Part.12 for explanation.

*Part.13 , rendering and material settings are done, and the model is finally complete~!

 

 

Summary: Everyone has their own way of Modeling, but the Way of Thinking can be utilized

♪

I've tried to show you how we model a character from scratch.

I think there are things that are different from my way - or this part was the same way, etc.

The content of this article is just one example of character modeling, but the ideas and points can be used in other ways.

While the polygonal modeling of characters is based on "creating from a small number of vertices", the following four points of the 3D model may make it a little easier to create.

  1. Proportion
  2. Volume
  3. Silhouette
  4. Detail

Of course, everyone has their own way of modeling.

You can try different ways of doing things until you find the right one, and even after you find the right one, you can try different ways of doing things to find a better way.

I hope that one thing or another in this article will be of help to someone.

 

If you want to try modeling characters in Blender, please refer to this article~.

Also, when making a 3D model, it is important to gather lots of Documents before making it!

And, if you are going to try modeling in earnest, I recommend making notes of your work.

 

List of comments

  1. nico says:

    Very, very informative! Thank you !!!!
    I went to the bookstore and bought some instructional books, but they were all either incredibly easy or
    The only way to create a character that was ridiculously difficult was to make a character and I was in trouble.

    Very easy model to emulate, and it really helped!

    • Toha トハ says:

      Thank you for your comment, NICO~!

      If you say so, it's worth my effort to write this article! I'm very happy too!
      We hope it will be useful for nico's future character modeling practice.

  2. たかた says:

    Hi, I really enjoy your articles on modeling. I would like to request you to post some modeling instructions on YouTube in the future.

    • Toha トハ says:

      Hello, Mr. Takata!
      Thank you for your comment.

      I'm glad you enjoyed the modeling article.
      As for the YouTube explanation of modeling, it's very difficult to explain this - it's very difficult to explain this.
      (1) I'm bad at talking.
      (2) No video editing skills or equipment of any kind.
      Therefore, it is expected that blogging will continue to be the main focus for Toha.
      Sorry I didn't meet your expectations! Please take a look at the blog again if you like!

  3. 猫ダマシ says:

    Hello, I really enjoyed this article.
    I am making doujin games, etc., and I was wondering if it would be possible to sell this body on BOOTH, etc.
    I have been looking for a way to sell the body of a doujin game.

    We are having a hard time finding materials that can be used as a base body.

    • Toha トハ says:

      Hello, Nekodamashi - thank you for your comment!

      I am glad you enjoyed reading the article.
      As for the "body of the model for illustrative purposes..."...
      Currently, we have no plans to sell the body of this model anywhere. This is because
      I didn't plan to animate it from the beginning.
      The limbs are not very versatile in terms of design.
      This is because I do not think it is easy to use as an elemental model because of the following reasons.

      However, after receiving Nekodamashi's comment this time, I wondered if there is such a demand for this type of service. I think there is a possibility that the model may be scrutinized to make it easier to use in the future and sold in some form or other. I think there is a possibility that we will sell the model in some form or another, after careful examination to make it easier to use in the future.
      It's not going to happen anytime soon, so I'm not sure if it can be utilized in Nekodamashi's game production.
      If we ever sell any elemental models made by Toha, we will let you know on our blog and Twitter.

      Incidentally, there are also some low-poly elements available on BOOTH.
      https://booth.pm/ja/search/%E7%B4%A0%E4%BD%93%E3%80%80%E3%83%A2%E3%83%87%E3%83%AB

      Even if you don't find the perfect fit for the game you want to make.
      If the model is OK for modification, it may be easier to create a character model than to create one from scratch.

      I am sorry that I did not meet your expectations, but I hope you will confirm the above~.

  4. 5代目カネゴン says:

    Hi, I always enjoy looking at your site. This article in particular was very informative.
    This is a quick question, but is it still difficult to model characters unless you have some artistic ability and drawing ability? Sorry for the sudden question.

    • Toha トハ says:

      Hello, 5th generation Kanegon!
      Thanks so much for always having fun watching me!
      I would like to answer your question, although it is only in the opinion of Toha.

      First of all, Toha is not good at drawing. But I can model characters.
      For Toha, painting is more difficult than modeling.
      Putting textures aside for the moment, purely in terms of modeling and modeling, you don't need to have good drawing skills. What is necessary is to "observe well and capture the shape of the object."

      The texture is a 2D illustration that is pasted onto a 3D model, so this one has a little to do with drawing ability and artistic ability.
      However, this is not to say that you need to have good drawing skills at all.
      Since 3DCG has many useful functions and software for drawing textures, you can make use of them to compensate for your lack of drawing ability.
      Besides, textures can actually be drawn to some extent theoretically by "observing carefully and capturing the texture of an object.

      There are many types of 3DCG in the world, such as celluloid look, photo-realistic, etc., but I think the 3D models with a "hand-drawn illustration style" are the ones that require the most artistic ability and drawing ability.
      For example, the Atelier series (the latest Liza's Atelier), the touch of the texture can really affect the quality of the 3D model.
      For this type of character model, I think that the artistic sense is also a very important factor.

      Therefore, there is no need to say that character models are difficult to make if you can't draw. To begin with, I don't think there are many people who can do character modeling so easily.
      Character modeling is difficult whether you have a good artistic sense or not, so those who can continue steadily without giving up will eventually become good at it.

      And Toha thinks that ~.

      • 5代目カネゴン says:

        Thanks for your very clear answer!
        I am not a painter myself so I feel very positive about this. Thank you for your time 🙇♂️.

      • Toha トハ says:

        Thank you for your reply, 5th Kanegon~!
        I guess it was hard to read because my answer was so long...
        I was thinking, "I'm glad you got the message.
        Even if you are not good at painting, I am sure it is better to be positive and not pessimistic~^^.

  5. ルビ says:

    Nice to meet you, Mr. Toha.

    As a beginner in 3D modeling, this was a very informative article.
    In particular, the way of making the head is different from what I am doing now, and I felt that this is better suited for me depending on the model I make. I will use this as a reference for future model making.

    As the story goes, I recently decided to try my hand at creating a game and was making 3D models to go along with it, but I was unable to create a character with a head height that matched my image of the character.
    I was racking my brains and came across this blog.

    The 3D model of Setschan created by Toha in this article matches the head height and body shape of the character in my game.
    The reference is the head height and body shape, not the design of the hair, clothes, etc.

    In the future, we are also considering the possibility of earning income from our own games (selling completed games, creating apps to generate advertising revenue, etc.), although this is still some time away and may not be feasible.

    What do you think about the possibility of creating a game using Setschan's 3D model and the 3D model referenced in this article, and possibly earning money from it?
    We are not in a hurry and would be happy to answer your questions when you have time.

    Sorry for the length of this message.

    • Toha トハ says:

      Ruby, nice to meet you and thank you very much for your comment~!
      I'm glad to hear that you find it helpful - good for you!
      There are many ways to do modeling, and I hope you find a way that works for you, Ruby.

      So, Ruby, you are thinking of eventually making your own game!
      TOHA is still in the middle of the road, but we are working a little bit at a time toward game production.
      Now, you want to create a model for your own game based on the head height and body shape of Secchan's model, and I hope you will find it useful.

      ExplanationSecchan's copyrighted material belongs, of course, to the person who created it, Toha.
      However, creating your own 3D model based on the character's head, body shape, and other elements is not an infringement of any rights, and we do not see any problem with it.
      I don't think there is any problem at all with creating a game using the 3D models created in this way and earning money from game sales, advertising revenue, etc.

      Originally, the model for the explanation Secchan was created to explain modeling, etc. on this blog.
      Naturally, we also assume that readers of the blog will model the Sescan model by referring to the blog and copying Sescan's model.
      It is a great learning experience to try to make something by copying it, and Setsuchan was born to do so, and I hope he will be able to use it as a reference by copying it to a great extent.
      However, copying is only for practice and study. To present your model to the world as your creation, you need to take it one step further and incorporate original designs and elements.

      I know that Mr. Ruby, who has so politely confirmed with Toha in this way, is a person who is fully capable of taking care of such matters and the rights to his productions.
      I hope that Ruby's ideal 3D model will be completed while incorporating elements such as Secchan's head height and body shape.
      We still need to prepare bones, weights, etc. to make the 3D models we created work in games, but we are looking forward to the day when Ruby's characters work in games!

      • ルビ says:

        Thank you for your quick reply and warm response.

        In retrospect, I should have sent this type of information in an inquiry instead of a comment. My apologies.

        I have heard that there is no problem in using Secchan's model and this article as a reference, so I will use it as a reference and try to create a model with my own style.
        I will do my best so that one day the moving 3D model I created will be seen by Mr. Toha.

        Thank you very much for your detailed response.
        I will continue to look forward to your blog.

      • Toha トハ says:

        Ruby, thanks for the reply~!

        No, no, it's not a problem at all to send us a comment.
        Perhaps someone with a similar question to Ruby's will see this exchange of comments and solve the problem.
        As a Toha, I appreciate it, Ruby, thank you very much.

        Please come back and visit us anytime, even though we are updating the blog at a slower pace.
        We look forward to seeing you soon.

  6. とま says:

    Thanks to this article by Toha, I am now able to do human body modeling, which I have failed to do many times before.

    I bought various books and tried many things by trial and error, but none of them worked, and I now realize that the reason for this was that I was still unable to see the big picture.

    All books contain techniques, but none of them properly describe the concept and reasons for modeling like Toha's.

    This method of starting from a rough, easy-to-create shape and then subdividing it into smaller pieces suited me very well, and thanks to your help, I was able to create something I was satisfied with.

    Thank you so much.

    • Toha トハ says:

      Thank you very much for your comment, Toma!
      I'm so grateful to hear you say that!
      We are very happy if our articles are useful to you!
      I believe the basic ideas in this article can be applied to more high-poly and high-detail character modeling.
      Please continue to make various 3D models of Toma-san!

  7. ARI says:

    I am a beginner in Blender (3DCG).
    I had a trial-and-error experience with the 3D modeling process, and Toma wrote about it in great detail, which was very helpful for my future 3DCG creation.

    I know this is off topic, but I have one question regarding Blender.

    I also made each part as in the work shown up, but when I animate the parts, the space between each part is torn off. I understand that this is because the parts are not connected to each other, but I am struggling with this because I lack knowledge about the method to attach the parts to each other.

    From what I've been able to find out, in Blender, the
    (1) Cut the part to be connected according to the figure of the connection source in the low poly stage → "Bridge Edge Loop [Ctrl+E]" to join the parts.
    (2) Use a boolean, "Difference" → "Merge" → Object Merge [Ctrl+J].

    I found a way to do this.
    (1) is difficult to cut the connection point when the number of vertices of the source and destination are large (for example, when attaching a sphere and a cube). (*There is a limit to how low-poly a sphere can be.)
    In (2), the spacing between connected vertices may be close or overlap, and it takes time to correct this.
    I have made a couple of pieces like that, but I am currently not comfortable with either approach.

    This is not directly related to the article, but since you mentioned that Toma-san created it part by part, I was wondering if you knew of any techniques. I thought I would comment on this.

    Sorry for the rudimentary & lengthy content!

  8. ARI says:

    Sorry for the consecutive posts.
    Sorry, you are Toha-san, right? I wrote Toma-san by mistake.
    I'm sorry...

    • Toha トハ says:

      ARI, thank you for viewing the article and commenting.
      I'm very happy to hear that you found it helpful - and I hope you don't mind ^^.

      Now, let me answer your question in the Toha way.
      In fact, in the way TOHA's modeling is done, it is more common to "connect parts by extrusion from the beginning" than to "connect parts later".
      Of course, there are times when parts made separately are joined together later. For example, the head and body are made separately and later joined at the neck.
      The reason why the head was not made by extruding it from the body is that I thought, "It is easier and cleaner to connect this part later than to make it by extrusion.

      When creating 3D models, TOHA always thinks about how to make it easy and clean.
      It may sound like we are cutting corners when we say "making it easy," but that is not the case. The less tedious work you have to do, the more time you have to focus on the details of the 3D model.
      Besides, the reason we want to make it easy is to make it beautiful.
      As ARI mentioned, if you want to connect a sphere and a cube object, for example, it's a lot of work to cut them and the result is often not beautiful.
      So how can we connect spheres and cubes in an "easy and clean" way? If you think about it, you may come up with a better way.

      If Toha were to connect a sphere and a cube, I think he would make it by extruding the cube out of the square polygons in the sphere object - I think.
      No, no, no, I want to work on the sphere and the cube separately! I think that even if you say, "No, no, no, I want to work on the sphere and the cube separately!
      If you think about how to make it from the viewpoint of "How can I make it easier and more beautiful like this? If you think about how to make it from the viewpoint of "How can I make it easier and more beautiful?

      However, I think what ARI wants to know the most is how do you connect objects? I will answer that question as well.
      Toha often uses theVertex Snapfunction.
      For example, when attaching the head and body at the neck, the vertex at the base of the neck, created by pushing out from the head, is snapped into position exactly at the vertex of the part of the body where the neck is to be connected.
      Once alignedvertex mergeConnect them with the Once the head and body objects have been merged, theSewing union of verticesto connect vertices
      If the number of vertices is not the same on the head side and the body side, the number of vertices must be the same on the head side and the body side.
      The method of connecting vertex-snap joints is almost the same as using the bridge function to attach them. If the number of vertices is too different between the parts to be connected, it is difficult to match the number of vertices.
      But since Toha always thinks about "how to make it easy and clean," I think I probably do it differently in those cases - I think.
      The reason why we use many extrusions in our modeling is that we think it is easier and more beautiful to make extrusions than to connect them later.

      So, although this is more of a way of thinking than a technique, I hope it will be of some help to ARI.
      In fact, the concept of "easy and clean" can be applied to many things.
      For example, Sacchan basically makes everything from a cube, but he makes buttons from a cylinder and bracelets from a torus because it is easier and prettier than making from a cube.
      Like this, before you make something, you might think a little, "How can I make it easier and prettier?" Before making something like this, think a little about "how to make it easy and clean" and you may come up with a good way.
      Please give it a try!

      • ARI says:

        Thank you for the heads up, Toha!

        I am sorry that you have been able to answer my question in so much detail, so clearly and precisely...I am sorry.
        I am ashamed to admit that I was a bit moved to tears.

        How can I make it easier and prettier?"
        That is certainly true.
        I wasn't entirely unaware of it myself, but I was thinking about separating the head and the body and then later connecting them by the neck... and so on.
        It was an eye-opener to see that there is such a way to extrude a cube from a spherical square polygon...etc.!
        I'll try to be a little more flexible in my thinking to make things a little easier!

        Thank you also for showing us how to connect objects together.
        I wanted to do something similar to the image that Mr. Toha described, and he was very helpful.
        *I didn't even get to see every inch of each page, so I'll take a proper look at it from the perspective of expanding my ideas.

        Actually, I am in the process of changing jobs, and I am learning 3DCG software (Blender) related to my new job by myself, with no experience.
        Specifically, we are working on one piece of work, using various pages as references, and then applying the experience to the next piece....

        However, since I am self-taught, I often find that I just don't have enough knowledge to make it work.

        I know it's on the internet, but you've compiled this kind of information, and despite the (probably) rudimentary questions...
        Thank you again and again for your kind attention to me, a complete stranger.

        I also want to follow the example of Mr. Toha and summarize as much as possible the experiences I have acquired through learning and
        I felt that I would like to pass this on to others who have similar problems in the future.
        *I really want to give something back to Mr. Toha, but...

      • Toha トハ says:

        ARI, thank you for your reply~!
        I didn't expect you to be so pleased, and I was so moved myself!
        Just the words of gratitude are enough for me!

        We hope that the concept of "easy and clean" will be of some help to ARI in the future.
        However, there are times when the only way to make a model is to use a method that is a pain in the neck, or when we dare to use a more labor-intensive method in order to make a cleaner model.
        In that sense, please try it with a "flexible mindset.

        I think it's a great idea to summarize the points you had problems with and what you learned.
        Of course it can be useful to someone else, and in fact, it can be useful to you as well. Sometimes people forget...
        The more you make 3DCG, the better you get at it, so I hope that you will continue to make progress, little by little, without being discouraged even when things don't go well.

        ARI, you are currently studying Blender and other software while looking for a new job, aren't you?
        I wish you the best of luck in your job search, and I'll be rooting for you!

        When Toha was an even more inexperienced 3DCG designer than he is now, he received a lot of help from kind senior designers and knowledgeable predecessors on the Internet.
        One of the purposes of this blog was to return the kindness that TOKA had received, and the fact that it has reached people like ARI is a great accomplishment of that purpose.
        Thanks so much for reading my blog~!
        If you would like, Toha would be glad if you could come back to the blog from time to time in the future.

  9. ARI says:

    I just think that our predecessors are great.

    It is very important to summarize. It helps me to forget, and it also helps me to organize my mind to see if I understand it myself.
    I will try to proceed steadily, step by step, and as unhurriedly as possible.

    So, Mr. Toha, you were also from a different industry.
    We're in similar circumstances, so it's very encouraging to get support from someone who's leading the way!

    Of course, I would like to visit your blog from time to time.
    It seems that coronavirus is becoming more prevalent, so please take care of yourself.

    Thank you!

  10. サッキー says:

    Good evening, I am making use of this article.
    I have one question... in part 4 of "Shaping the face," you mentioned thickening the hair.
    Is this one made thicker by solidifying the modifier?

    Or is the thickness added by extruding the surface?

    I would appreciate it if you could let me know.

    I'm working hard on the eye copy, but the face is especially difficult to model: ......

    • Toha トハ says:

      Thank you for your comment, Sackie~!
      Regarding your question, the thickness of the hair is applied by extruding the surface. We are not using a modifier. ExplanationSecchan model is modeled using Blender 2.8, and the only modifier we use is a mirror~.

      It is really difficult to sculpt a face. I'm sorry I didn't explain in detail in the article ><
      If you can't make a satisfactory face, you can try again from the beginning, because the second time is often better than the first.
      If you get stuck in modeling, try it!

      • サッキー says:

        Thanks for the reply!

        >If you can't make a face that you are satisfied with, you can try to make it again from the beginning.
        I was kind of afraid that if I started over, I wouldn't be able to complete it.
        I guess it's important to go back once! I'll think about it!

  11. DRI says:

    It is difficult to model something like the human body, where even the slightest misalignment of the vertexes can lead to major discomfort.
    Just moving the position of the point that bothered me a little in 3-(2) makes the polygons rattle.
    Hundreds of times I've fallen behind in areas that you professionals can handle without a second thought... next time I'll get over it!

    • Toha トハ says:

      Thank you for your comment, DRI~!
      Even professionals are modeling while thinking, "It's so difficult~! I'm sure that's how it is.
      The process of shaping polygons by moving vertices can be quite simple and steady, so don't be discouraged and give it a try - the more times you do it, the better you will get at modeling!

  12. yuckey says:

    Hello Toha, I am a fifth-grader who has been using Blender for a few months.
    I found this blog very clear and informative because with reference books it's hard!
    I am now looking at Toha's blog/YouTube to build my head and body.
    I'm about to make the ears, but I'm going to push the ears out (?). What command are you using by the way?
    I could not see well.
    Could you please let me know if you would like to know?
    Thank you for your cooperation.

    • Toha トハ says:

      Thank you for your comment, yuckey!
      What a 5th grader you are! It's amazing that you've even started modeling with Blender!

      I'm sorry it was a little hard to tell what you were using in the video to make the ears - sorry!
      Where the ear and the making of theMake Linetool as a knife tool to cut polygons.pushing one's opponent out by pressing one's hands up against themI'm using polygon extrusion and other methods to extrude these.Favorite Toolsand call them up by registering them to "Shift+Q". Toha has customized the shortcuts in Blender a little for his own convenience, and his favorite tools are registered with "Shift+Q".
      Here are the shortcuts that Toha often uses in modeling
      Please take a look at the list in the following section - useful add-ons and other software used in the video are also introduced with links in the description section of the video.

      The functions and commands not introduced are probably not used in the video, but if you have any questions about them, please feel free to ask me again in the comments.
      Well then, continue to have fun with your Blender modeling! ^^^^^^^^^^.

      • yuckey says:

        Thank you, Toha.
        Thanks to your instruction, I was able to make one that looked like an ear!
        Make Line was also used to cut into the ears.
        It is very easy to use and put in my favorite tool.
        I will read the other articles.
        Thank you for telling us about it.
        I'll continue to learn about blender modeling tools and such!

  13. スターライト says:

    I'd like to ask you a few questions, but I'm not sure if you can use the models you made based on this course for commercial use or
    Can I use it for age-restricted works, etc.?

    • Toha トハ says:

      Thank you for your comment, Starlight~!
      Regarding your question about whether the model created based on the article and video can be used for commercial purposes, we have received a previous response to this articleQuestion from Ruby.In the following section, we discuss our views on creating a model based on the Secchan model and using the model for commercial purposes. Please check this question and answer first.

      Based on this, I think that the 3D model created by Starlite herself based on the articles and videos by Toha is an original 3D model created by Starlite, and has nothing to do with Setcchan's explanation by Toha. It is up to the creator of the model to decide how to use his or her own model, which was created based on reference materials, etc., so there is no problem if the model is used in an age-restricted work, etc.

      As for TOHA, this article and video are not an explanation of how to create a character model called "Secchan," but rather an explanation of the process and ideas necessary to complete a character model. I hope you will take the process and ideas into consideration and use them as a source of inspiration for your own character models. I hope you will take the process and ideas into consideration and use them as a source of inspiration for your own work.

  14. いも says:

    I am a recent newcomer to 3D. I have always wanted to try modeling people, but the hurdles were too high and I couldn't get into it. But thanks to this video, I was able to complete a human figure for the first time. I am very grateful. Thank you very much for making this video.

    • Toha トハ says:

      Thanks for your comment, Imo.
      Thank you very much for watching my video, and I'm glad that my poor video helped you to create your first character model!
      When I get comments on my videos like this, it makes me think, "Oh, I'm glad I put that video out there, I can do it again! Please take a look again if you like.

  15. みたらし says:

    Thank you for the clear explanation! I have just recently started modeling and am still not very good at it. My current goal is to create 3D characters, ships, and objects in the future, but I wonder if the ease of creation will differ between people and objects. Also, in the case of characters, does the ease of creation differ depending on gender?

    • Toha トハ says:

      Mitarashi-san, thank you for your comment - I appreciate you taking a look at my blog ^^^.
      Is there a difference in ease of production between people and objects? There is a slight difference in the way of making something that does not have a definite shape, such as a person, and something that has a definite shape, such as an object. Therefore, I think there is a difference in which is easier to make, or which is more fun to make, depending on the person making the object. You won't know for sure until you try making either one yourself, so by all means, give it a try!

      Another difference in ease of character creation depending on the gender of the character is that it depends on the preference of the person creating the character. Some people are good at creating cute girls, some are good at creating muscular gaming characters, and some are good at creating monsters and creatures... I model all kinds of characters in my work, but if you are good at creating cute characters, it may be difficult to create muscular macho characters, and vice versa. (Of course, some people are good at both.)
      So it is hard to say how it is all the same, but one theory is that it is more difficult to make a male character look cool than to make a female character look cute.
      In particular, there are many cases in which a 2D drawing of a handsome male character in an anime-style drawing would fail if it were modeled in 3D as is.

      • みたらし says:

        Thank you, Toha! I am really glad that I finally came to such an easy-to-understand site because I was having trouble with how to make it, etc., and I searched many pages and finally came to such an easy-to-understand site.

      • みたらし says:

        I really appreciate your easy-to-understand explanation and your reply. Keep up the good work, Toha!

      • Toha トハ says:

        Thank you so much for your support~!
        I will continue to do my best at my own pace.

Toha
Toha

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